Wednesday, December 30, 2009

Half empty or half full

My special thanks for all my friends & family members that supported me during my down period cause by the closure of Wellness Village. There is finally a dim light at the end of the tunnel. It was reported a few days back that some SPAs are offering to take over the unused packages. Of course the terms and conditions are not optimum but I am looking in the view of a half full glass. Instead of getting my 20 sessions, Substle Senses are giving me only 10 sessions that can be utilize from 11am to 5pm weekday. Finally after a long time I am going for my facial on the 12 Jan with Subtle Senses.


In line with the SPA business, here my desktop research on the different Nail treatments offered in the market

The main purpose of the manicure treatment is to improve the look and feel of your hands and fingernails. Another purpose is to clean, strengthen, shape, make attractive and sometimes even dress your nails. The other benefits associated with manicure include:

It improves the health and texture of your hands and fingernails.

It helps in preventing hang - nail formation.

It may help in treating sore or broken skin if present around the nails.

It helps in preventing nail damages like fragile tips, cuts or splits.

Massage that often accompanies manicure helps in improving the health of the skin by increasing blood circulation. By improving the health of the skin, it discourages the wrinkling of the skin on hands

There are many different types of manicures available. The steps carried out during any of the manicure types are same. That what distinguishes a type from another is the different shaping of the nails and application of different oils and creams.

Paraffin Manicure:
Hands can be dipped in melted paraffin wax for softening and moisturizing. Paraffin wax is used because it can be heated to temperatures of over 35°C, without burning or injuring the hand. The intense heat allows for deeper absorption of emollients and essential oils. The wax is usually infused with various botanical ingredients such as Aloe vera, chamomile, tea tree oil, and azulene. Fruit waxes such as peach, apple and strawberry are often used in salons.
Occasionally, lotion is rubbed on the hand before submersion into the paraffin bath. The hand is usually dipped more than once to allow a thicker wax coat to form, making the coating stays warm for longer and less likely to break or tear prematurely. After the hands have been dipped in the wax, they are wrapped in either plastic or aluminum foil, or a special type of plastic bag or glove then covered with towel or special mitten to retain warmth. The hands are left for a few minutes before the paraffin is cooled and dried.

Hot Oil manicure
A hot oil manicure is a specific type of manicure that cleans the cuticles and softens them with oil. It works well for dry skin and nails that are brittle as it improves both by leaving them soft and pliable. Types of oils that can be used are mineral oil, olive oil or commercial preparation in an electric heater.

French Manicure:
This is the most popular type of manicure. It involves the application of clear or nail-colored nail polish on the body of the nail and pure white nail polish at the tips of nails. The nails are shaped round, oval or square as per desire.

Hot Stone Manicure:
In this type of manicure, hand massage is given by using hot stone therapy. Originated from an ancient ritual from the South Pacific, warm stones massage away any tension or pain in your hands and arms. Hand and arm exfoliation, and extra cuticle work improve the appearance of your hands.

Luxury Manicure:
This type of manicure includes the use of paraffin wax and heated mittens for softening and warming the hands and hydrating the nails.

Spa Manicure:
This type of manicure includes few additional steps than the normal manicure like a hydrating mask or an aromatic salt rub.

A good new year celebration is not having class today till the 4th Jan. So till than Enjoy your count down!!!!

Thursday, December 24, 2009

French Fashion

Just from one class trust me that French manicure nail art is highly in vogue and gone are the days when bland manicured nails with one simple coat of paint were the fashion statement.

French manicure are basically shaped oval to soften the edges and are painted with a light pink coat whereas the tips are painted with a thin edged coat of bright white nail paint. One needs to be careful that the white edge is not too thick, which kills the authentic look.

Overall, the manicure gives a super-natural look and apt for all types of occasions, be it professional or social.

French pedicure procedures

1) Wipe both feet with towel soak with surgical spirit

2) Soak in revitalizing foot bath solution (Dettol mixed with water to disinfectant and soften cracked cuticle and heal

3) Dab dry feet with clean towel

4) Remove existing nail polish with nail polish remover (Contain vitamin E )

5) Shape left foot with emery board.

6) Start cuticle works on left leg

a) Apply cuticle remover

b) Use of orange stick to push the cuticle to the back or evenness.

c) Used of cuticle knife to remove dead cuticle

d) Used of cuticle nipper to trim uneven cuticle

7) Repeat step 5 and 6 on right leg

8) Buff the nails for lustrous shine

9) Foot filling

10) Massage both leg using massaging oil

11) Use tissues to dab away the excess massage cream

12) Insert toes separator in between toes of leg

13) Enameling job starting from last toe nail

a) Apply 1 coat of base with strengthen properties

b) Apply 2 coat of color nail polish

c) Once dry white enamel is apply only on the tip of the nail , preferable with one long stroke instead of breaking it up

d) Top coat is apply to protect the nail enamel & enhance the colors

14) Proceed to the right hand step 13

French manicure procedures

1) Remove existing nail polish with nail polish remover (Contain vitamin E)

2) Nail shaping using the emery board. File nails in a curved shape

Give this French Fashion a go & I am sure you will fall in love with them
3) Apply sweet almond oil onto all nail

4) Soak all fingers (Left hand)

5) When soaking the left hand repeat step 1 to 4 on right hand

6) Remove the left hand from the manicure bowl & soak the right hand

7) Dab dry left hand with clean towel

8) Begin the cuticle work on left hand

a) Apply cuticle remover

b) Use of orange stick to push the cuticle to the back or evenness.

c) Used of cuticle knife to remove dead cuticle

d) Used of cuticle nipper to trim uneven cuticle

9) When done remove the right hand from manicure bowl and process to step 7 & 8

10) Buff nail for a lustrous shine

11) Massage hand with massage cream

12) Dab hand with tissues to remove excess massage cream

13) Enameling work starting with the last finger

a) Apply 1 coat of base with strengthen properties

b) Apply 2 coat of color nail polish

c) Once dry white enamel is apply only on the tip of the nail preferable with one long stroke instead of breaking it up

d) Top coat is apply to protect the nail enamel & enhance the colors

14) Proceed onto right hand step 13

This is one French Fashion that every gal should give a go once in their lifetime.

Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Pedis is a Latin word for foot

On the contrary Manus is a Latin word for hand and cura is for care so that explain how the name 'manicure' come about. After learning so much about manicure, it finally down to our humble feet.

1) A pedicure starts with soaking your feet in water that is mixed with Dettol for 5 to 10 minutes.

2) Dab the feet dry with a clean towel

3) Remove any existing nail polish and check if there is any contra indication below the nail plate

4) Place a piece of clean tissues below the feet

5) File only the center of the nails in one direction using the coarser side of the emery board

6) Apply either cuticle oil or cream on all toes

7) Massage toe in circular motion

8) Wrap orange stick with thin layer of cotton & dip in water

9) Push the toes cuticle using the wrap orange stick (45 degree in small circular motion)

10) Use the cuticle knife to remove all dead skin on the toes plate (45 degree from the grove to the middle of the cuticle)

11) Using the cut release motion, cuticle nipper is use to remove dead skin.

12) Foot filing is done in one direction starting from the top to bottom.

13) Massage with massage oil or cream

Massage Steps
a) Long effleurage massage using long sweeping strokes from ankle to knee moving from the front to the back of the leg with right hand on top & left hand below (3 times)

b) Fiction effleurage massage to leg using pressure from the finger & palm

c) Ankle outward kneading targeting at the ankle center (hole)

d) Leg outward kneading

c) Toe circulation is done by securing the leg via the top with thumb on the center of the leg

d) Use the thumb to hold firmly the highest joint upon clockwise & anti clockwise motion the toes are pull gently

e) Sore kneading targeting the middle of the leg by pushing outward

f) Leg circulation by securing the bottom of the leg & rotating the ankle in 3 large clockwise & anticlockwise directions

g) Push the leg to the front & back

h) Rolling motion by securing feet in between hands & moving side to side

i) The massage is finish off by the long effleurage massage using long sweeping strokes from ankle to knee moving from the front to the back of the leg with right hand on top & left hand below (3 times)

14) Use tissues to dab away the excess massage oil or cream

15) Polishing of nail ( The usage of base coat, 2 layers of colors coat & top coat )

With that I am going to have a mock test on Friday, wish me luck people….

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Free Hand Massage Anyone

What an interesting lesson!!!! Hand massage!!!! I will try to put the techniques in words just for you. But if you want to know the steps better just give me a shout : )) I will gladly practice the steps on you. It’s free for this limited time only.

1) Using a bit of massaging oil to effleurage the whole forearm. Outer arm followed by inner arm ( 3 times each)

2) Thumb kneading is done via upward motion at the back of the wrist followed by back of the hand (3 times)

3) Finger circulation & slightly pull the fingers ( Please remember to support the joint)

4) Palm kneading inward direction

5) Wrist circulation via crossing your finger & move them 3 times clockwise & anticlockwise

6) Wrist Stretching via pushing the wrist to the back, forward & pull

7) Rolling movement using both hand in between the thumb in sliding movements

Yes I know it’s hard to visualize that the very reason why I offered you a free demonstration instead.

Before signing off, here I am sharing with you how a simple hand is interrelated to the whole body

Wednesday, December 9, 2009


These uploads are dedicated to my lovely Sis
ENJOY my version of SCARY MOIVE




This one is just for you Hanissah hehe



Nail Separation





Calluses & Corn


Discolored Nails

Eggshells Nail

I guess I better end this topic now : ))

Monday, December 7, 2009

When nails got SICK : ((

I thought of doing some researches before the class today but I was overwhelmed with all the different types of nail disease and not forgetting the gross pictures. Here are some out of many diseases that I will try to keep it short and sweet

Bruised Nails
is a condition in which a clot of blood forms under the nail plate. The clot is caused by injury to the nail bed. It can vary in color from maroon to black. In some cases, a bruised nail will fall off during the healing process. Severe bruising should not be worked on.

Also known as atrophy describes the wasting away of the nail. The nail loses its shine, shrinks, and falls. This can be caused by injury to the nail matrix or by internal disease. This condition with be handle with care

Show the opposite symptoms of onychatrophia.
Nails with this disorder are abnormally thick. The condition is usually caused by internal imbalance, local infection, or heredity. The nail is to be filed until smooth and buff

Ingrown nails is a familiar condition of the fingers and toes in which the nail grows into the sides of the tissue around the nail. If the nail is not too deeply imbedded in the flesh, you can trim the corner of the nail in a curved shape to relieve the pressure on nail groove. If it is deep they should see a doctor.

Is the medical term for nails that have been bitten enough to become deformed. This condition can be greatly improved by regular manicures or artificial nails. It is not realistic to tell a nail biter to come back for artificial nails after they have grown a free edge. Artificial nails can help this person break the biting habit. There are also nail biting topically applied remedies available.

describes as the common condition of the forward growth of the cuticle on the nail. The cuticle sticks to the nail plate and, if not treated, will grow over the nail to the free edge.

Is a condition in which white spots appear on the nails. It is caused by air bubbles, a bruise or other injury to the nail. Leukonchia can not be corrected but it will grow out.

Refers to split or brittle nails that also have a series of lengthwise ridges. It can be caused by chemicals, injury to the fingers, excessive use of cuticle solvents, nail polish removers and careless rough filing. This condition may be corrected by softening the nails with a reconditioning treatment and discontinuing the abuse.

Is a common condition in which the cuticle around the nail splits. Hangnails are caused by dry cuticles and skin. They are also aggravated by improper trimming. This disorder can be solved by keeping the cuticles moisturized with oil and lotion. These can become infected and very painful

Also known as corrugations, are long ridges that run either lengthwise or across the nail. Some lengthwise ridges are normal in adults. These ridges increase with age and can also be caused by psoriasis, poor circulation and frostbite. Ridges that run across the nail are caused by high fevers, pregnancy & measles

Eggshell Nails
Are thin, white, and curved over the free edge. The condition is caused by improper diet, internal disease, medication, or nervous disorders. Be careful when manicuring these nails because they are fragile and break easily.

Discolored Nails
This is a condition in which the nails turn a variety including yellow, blue, blue-gray, green, red and purple. Discoloration can be caused by poor circulation, a heart condition, or topical or oral medications. It may also indicate the presence of a systemic disorder. Artificial wraps, tips or an application of colored polish can hide this condition.

Longitudinal ridging
This may often be mistaken for a fungal infection. Causes include alopecia areata, lichen planus, rheumatoid arthritis ans peripheral vascular disease

Minor Nails separations
Usually damage to the nail, however could be related to illness. When the nail separates from the underlying tissue (nail bed) it appears as if the white part of the nail is extending backwards and becoming larger. Most commonly this is caused by psoriasis or repeated exposure to detergents. Catching the nail accidentally on something is also a common explanation, causing the nail to be levered off the nail bed. Typing on a keyboard may have the same effect over time.

A callus (or callosity) is an especially toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard in response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation. Rubbing that is too frequent or forceful will cause blisters rather than allow calluses to form. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on feet because of frequent walking. Calluses are generally not harmful, but may sometimes lead to other problems, such as skin ulceration or infection.

A corn (or clavus, plural clavi) is a specially-shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin or glabrous (hairless and smooth) skin surfaces, especially on the dorsal surface of toes or fingers. They can sometimes occur on the thicker palmar or plantar skin surfaces. Corns form when the pressure point against the skin traces an elliptical or semi-elliptical path during the rubbing motion, the center of which is at the point of pressure, gradually widening. If there is constant stimulation of the tissue producing the corns, even after the corn is surgically removed, the skin may continue to grow as a corn.The location of soft corns tends to differ from that of hard corns. Hard corns occur on dry, flat surfaces of skin. Soft corns (frequently found between adjacent toes) stay moist, keeping the surrounding skin soft. The corn's center is not soft, however, but indurated.

Corns and calluses are easier to prevent than to treat. When it is not desirable to form a callus, minimizing rubbing and pressure will prevent callus formation. Footwear should be properly fitted and broken in, gloves may be worn, and protective pads, rings or skin dressings may be used. People with poor circulation or sensation should check their skin often for signs of rubbing and irritation so they can minimize any damage. Calluses and corns may go away by themselves eventually, once the irritation is consistently avoided. They may also be dissolved with keratolytic agents containing salicylic acid, sanded down with a pumice stone, or pared down by a medical professional such as a podiatrist

A bunion is a structural deformity of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe, and may be painful. A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).The big toe may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender. The symptoms of bunions include irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. Bunions are caused by a biomechanical abnormality, where certain tendons, ligaments, and supportive structures of the first metatarsal are no longer functioning correctly. This biomechanical abnormality may be caused by a variety of conditions intrinsic to the structure of the foot--such as flat feet, excessive ligamentous flexibility, abnormal bone structure, and certain neurological conditions. These factors are often considered genetic. Although some experts are convinced that poor fitting footwear is the main cause of bunion formation, other sources concede only that footwear exacerbates the problem caused by the original genetic deformity.

Bunions are commonly associated with a deviated position of the big toe toward the second toe, and the deviation in the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the foot. The small sesamoid bones found beneath the first metatarsal (which help the flexor tendon bend the big toe downwards) may also become deviated over time as the first metatarsal bone drifts away from its normal position. Arthritis of the great toe joint, diminished and/or altered range of motion, and discomfort with pressure applied to the bump or with motion of the joint, may all accompany bunion development.

Bunions may be treated conservatively with changes in shoe gear, different orthotics (accommodative padding and shielding), rest, ice, and medications. These sorts of treatments address symptoms more than they correct the actual deformity. Surgery, by a podiatrist or an orthopeadist, may be necessary if discomfort is severe enough or when correction of the deformity is desired.

Chilblains are also referred to as pernio or perniosis. They are small, itchy, painful swellings that generally appear on the skin after several hours of exposure to cold temperatures. Thus, they tend to develop during the winter months. They are more likely to occur on the extremities such as the toes, fingers, nose and earlobes, which are the first areas to become cold. Other areas of the skin such as the heels, thighs and lower legs can also be affected in extreme temperatures.

Ingrown toenails
Onychocryptosis (also known as an "Ingrown nail," or "Unguis incarnates”) is a common form of nail disease. It is an often painful condition in which the nail grows so that it cuts into one or both sides of the nail bed. While ingrown nails can occur in both the nails of the hand and feet, they occur most commonly with the toenails.

With that I will spare the gross photos in my next upload

Sunday, December 6, 2009

Sub tt form a MIXTURE

An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture...........

Maybe I am thinking too much but have you ever wonder what is the ingredients that made up the products used in manicure and pedicure

1) Nail Polish remover
Used to remove nail poilsh and grease from the nail plate prior to applying polish.

A nail polish remover is formulated from a combination of solvents derived from naturally occurring materials, which combination consists essentially of a (i) a major proportion by weight (“by wt”) of esters of fatty acids having from 16 to 18 carbon atoms wherein the content of linoleic acid ester in the source vegetable oil is less than 60%, and (ii) a minor proportion by weight of a lower (C1–C5) alkyl lactate. The nail polish remover is highly effective yet has good skin conditioning properties, is non-toxic and non-flammable. A visible residue several micrometers thick provides a desirable gloss on the cleaned nails unless it is washed off.

- Acetone or ethyl acetate

Acetone is the organic compound with the formula OC(CH3)2. This colorless, mobile, flammable liquid is the simplest example of the ketones. Owing to the fact that acetone is miscible with water it serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes

- Perfume
- Colour
- Oil

2) Hand Lotion/ Oil
Used to soften the skin and cuticles and provide slip during hand massage

- Vegetable oil (Almond Oil)
Sweet Almond oil is one of the most popular vegetable oils, which is also used in the form of carrier oil. Texture wise, the oil extracted from the seeds of Almond, is a bit oily. The botanical name of Almond is Prunus amygdalus var. dulcus. Sweet Almond has a very light, sweet and nutty aroma. It is absolutely clear in color with a tinge of yellow.

Benefits of Almond Oil

a) Almond oil is believed to improve complexion and add glow to even dull skin.
b) It improves the movement of food through the colon.
c) Regular intake of almond oil is said to reduce cholesterol.
d)It acts as a nutritive for brain and nervous system.
e) It is considered to encourage high intellectual level and longevity.
f) For massage and internal consumption, almond oil is regarded as a nutritive aphrodisiac.
g) It improves the immune system of the body.
h) To restore lost moisture in skin, almond oil is the best medication.
i) Due to its lubrication property, it helps in fighting itching and inflammation.
It is suitable for all skin types and acts as a natural moisturizer.
Application of sweet almond oil provides an instant relief from problems such as muscle pain.

- Perfume

- Emulsifying agents (besswax or gum tragacanth)

Lotion are made by combining oil-based and water-based ingredients, and are therefore the only skin care applications that have at the same time moisturising and nourishing effects. The water (or water-based ingredients) supply the "moisturising" properties, and the oils or fats the "nourishing" properties.

Technically, lotions are emulsions. In an emulsion, tiny droplets of one of the liquids are suspended in a second liquid, which would not "naturally" mix with the first. This is the case with water and oils: it is always possible to mix together water and oil, but unless something is done to create an emulsion, the oils (which are lighter than water) will always sit on top of the water and not "blend" with it.
This physical incompatibility of water and oils can be overcome by agitating the water and oil mix. Agitation disperses the molecules, and generates an emulsion. However, emulsions made by simply agitating water and oil will separate within a short time, with the water part falling to the bottom, and the oils floating on top.
The only way to obtain a stable emulsion is to add an emulsifying agent to the mix.

- Emollients (glycerine or Lanoloin)
Emollients are substances that soften and soothe the skin. They are used to correct dryness and scaling of the skin.
- Preservatives

3) Nail bleach
Used to whiten stained nails and the surrounding skin

- Citric acid or hydrogen peroxide
a bleaching composition is applied to the skin or nails to be bleached or lightened

- Glycerine
Glycerin acts to moisturize the nails and cuticles
- Water

4) Nail Polish
Used to colour nail plates and provide some protection

A nail polish is made from 92% to 96% ingredients including a film former, colorant, plasticizer and solvent; and 4% to 8% polyester resin made from 2,2,4-trimethyl-1, 3-pentanediol, isophthalic acid-85, and trimellitic anhydride, having an acid value of 75-85 and a viscosity of 125-175 centipoise. In another example, the polyester is made from 50.932% 2,2,4 trimethyl-1, 3-pentanediol, 27.579% isophthalic acid-85, 0.186% dibutyl tin oxide catalyst and 21.303 trimellitic anhydride, having an acid value of 80 and a viscosity of 150 centipoise.

- Formaldehyde
Is a harden agents for nail but Formaldehyde is toxin as it is a carcinogen and a common indoor air pollutant because its resins are used in many construction materials. Formaldehyde has caused cancer in the nose and throats of lab animals. Inhaling the fumes can result in watery eyes, headache, burning in the throat, and labored breathing.
- Solvent
Drying agents
- Colour pigmentation

- Resin
Is the glue that joint the pigmentation together

- Toluene
Is the drying agent a clear, colourless liquid used to make products such as dyes, paints, paint thinners and explosives. Solvents such as toluene, which give nail polish its fluid quality and improve drying time, absorb easily through the skin or through inhalation. Toluene is a hydrocarbon (C7H8) that’s found in crude oil and is produced during the manufacture of gasoline and other fuels. It can affect the nervous system, causing depression, headaches, nausea and feelings of intoxication. Low to moderate levels of exposure can cause symptoms from tiredness to loss of hearing and colour vision.

- Plasticisers
An ingredient in nail polish to make it chip resistant

- Pearlised particles
Micas (tiny reflective minerals), also used in lipsticks, are a common additive, as is "pearl" or "fish scale" essence. "Pearl" or "guanine" is literally made from small fish scales and skin, suitably cleaned, and mixed with solvents such as castor oil and butyl acetate. The guanine can also be mixed with gold, silver, and bronze tones.

5) Cuticle cream
Used to soften the cuticles

- Emollients (glycerine or Lanoloin)
- Perfume
- Colour

6) Cuticle Oil
Used to condition the nail and surrounding skin

-Oil such as lanolin

7) Nail Strengthener
Used to harden soft nails but not good in long run

- Formaldehyde

8) Cuticle remover
Used to soften dead cuticles

- Potassium hydroxide
- Glycerine

Cuticle remover contain two of the most common ingredients Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide. They are both very alkaline (have a high ph) and caustic. These ingredients work by softening and breaking down the dead skin around the nail so that it can be removed gently with a nail knife or orange-wood stick.

Both ingredients can cause irritations and dryness if left on the skin for too long, so it’s important to wash your hands well and thoroughly after using products that contain them. In addition, they are poisonous when ingested so keep them away from small children.

A milder option
Products with Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide are pretty harsh and aggressive, so if you prefer a more gentle alternative, you can get one of the many cuticle removers on the market that use Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA) instead. This is a group of substances derived from plants or milk that act as exfoliants. They break down the glue-like substance that hold skin cells together so that they can be easily pushed away. Although milder than Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide, AHAs can cause irritations too especially in people with sensitive skin.

9) Buffing paste
Used to shine the nail plate (used with a buffer)

- Perfume
- Colour
- Abrasive particles (pumice, talc or silica)

10) Nail Polish drier
Used to increase the speed at which the nail polish hardens (Note that it only set the top layer & might give a pre mature chipping. Also come in Quick Dry Spray

- Mineral Oil
- Oleric acid or Sillicone

Do you know that.........
Dipping your nails in a bowl of ice water will make your nail polish dry more quickly. You'll only need to keep your nails in the water for about 30 seconds. The cold temperature will quickly set the polish.

11) Nail Polish Solvent
Used to thin nail polish that has thickens

- Ethyl acetate
Ethyl acetate (systematically, ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COOCH2CH3. This colorless liquid has a characteristic sweet smell (similar to pear drops) like certain glues or nail polish removers, in which it is used. Ethyl acetate is the ester of ethanol and acetic acid; it is manufactured on a large scale for use as a solvent.

- Toluene

12) Exfoliating scrub
Used to remove dead skin cells, cleanse the skin, condition soften and refreah kin, improving blood circulation in the area

- Abrasive ingredients such pumice, sea salt, detergent, water and water soluble ingredients added moisturisers, refreshing agents eg peppermint oil.

Blogging put away the fact that my boss is back tommorow so Eveyone out there



Thursday, December 3, 2009

Nail Anatomy

I never thought that even a simple nail can be so complicated

Above is the simplest Nail Diagram I could find for illustration purpose, I will also share the more complex diagram below:

I always have an impression that fingernail is made out of calcium but is actually made of keratin (amino acid) that has 2 purposes. The fingernail acts as a protective plate and enhances sensation of the fingertip. The protection function of the fingernail is commonly known, but the sensation function is equally important. The fingertip has many nerve endings in it allowing us to receive volumes of information about objects we touch. The nail acts as a counter force to the fingertip providing even more sensory input when an object is touched.

Nail Growth
Nails grow all the time, but their rates of growth depend on:
1) Health
2) Age: The older you are the slower the nail grow
3) Diet
4) Medication
5) Climate: Do you know that our nails grow faster in hot weather?
6) Damage: Damage to the matrix can result to permanent deformities
7) Lifestyle
8) Gender
9) Pregnancy: Nails grow faster in the 4th to 8th trimester.
10) Water & Chemical

Fingernails grow faster than toenails at a rate of 3mm per month. It takes 6 months for a nail to grow from the matrix to the free edge. Toenails grow about 1 mm per month and take 12-18 months to be completely replaced.

Nail Structure
1) The root
The root of the fingernail is also known as the germinal matrix. This portion of the nail is actually beneath the skin behind the fingernail and extends several millimeters into the finger. The fingernail root produces most of the volume of the nail and the nail bed. This portion of the nail does not have any melanocytes, or melanin producing cells. The edge of the germinal matrix is seen as a white, crescent shaped structure called the lunula.

2) Nail bed
This is the part of the finger underneath the nail plate. The nail bed is part of the nail matrix called the sterile matrix. It extends from the edge of the germinal matrix, or lunula, to the hyponychium. The nail bed contains the blood vessels, nerves, and melanocytes, or melanin-producing cells. As the nail is produced by the root, it streams down along the nail bed, which adds material to the undersurface of the nail making it thicker. It is important for normal nail growth that the nail bed be smooth. If it is not, the nail may split or develop grooves that can be cosmetically unappealing.

3) Nail plate
This is the visible portion of the nail that sits on top of the nail bed. The growth of nails from Lunala is opaque; it will become white & turn colorless eventually. The change of living cells to hard, dead cells, and it consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen.
The nail plate is the actual fingernail, made of translucent keratin. The pink appearance of the nail comes from the blood vessels & oxygen underneath the nail. There are 2 main blood vessels underneath the nail; one is to carry food and oxygen and the other is to clean up the cell by carrying out the toxin. The underneath surface of the nail plate has grooves along the length of the nail that help anchor it to the nail bed.

4) Matrix
This is where the nail is made. It is the only living part of the nail, and contains nerves and blood vessels so that cell reproduction can occur. The size and shape of the matrix determine the thickness, width and cleverage of the nails therefore the thicker the matrix is the longer the nail plates are.
5) Nail Wall
Lateral (side) of nail. These are the protective skin where the nail is still attached.

6) Nail Groove
These are the grooves on the skin at the sides of the free edge, and the nail follows the line as it grows.

7) Cuticle
This is the overlapping skin surrounding the nail. Its job is to protect the matrix from invading bacteria and physical damage.

8) Free Edge
The Distal (far) end of the nail plate that is shaped during Manicure & Pedicure. The shade is given by the lunula.

9) Lunala
Lunula is visible part of the matrix that determine the shape of the nail Milky white color moon

10) Mantle
Mantle is a deep fold of skin at the base of the nail before the cuticle. Covering the matrix

11) Eponychium (Living tissue)
Eponychium is situated between the skin of the finger and the nail plate fusing these structures together and providing a waterproof barrier. In simple term, cuticle of the base of the nail. There is a sticky residue in between the Eponychium and the cuticle

12) Perionychium
The perioncyhium is the skin that overlies the nail plate on its sides. It is also known as the paronychial edge.The perionychium is the site of hangnails, ingrown nails, and an infection of the skin called paronychia.

13) Hyponychium.
The hyponychium is the area between the nail plate and the fingertip. It is the junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin of the fingertip, also providing a waterproof barrier. It provides the toughest protection with tight stal.

Each of these structures has a specific function, and if disrupted can result in an abnormal appearing fingernail.

Nails are normally pink therefore blue nails are cause by:
1) Injury to the nail plate
2) Injury to the Matrix
3) Poor Circulation
4) Increase Circulation
eg: Heart attack
Lung disease
Liver disease

Here are more nail images thanks to goggle hehe : ))

With such a complex structure, nail care will be my ultimate mission for the next upload……..

Tuesday, December 1, 2009

3 Strange Equipments

I am not sure about you but these 3 equipments do look very foreign to me.

Orange Stick

Cuticle Knife

Cuticle Nipper

Orange Stick

A stick of orangewood with tapered ends, used in manicuring
Orange sticks are used to push back cuticles, which is an important step in manicures
Yesterday was the 1st time I get my cuticles push back by these orange sticks, honestly I felt that there is so significant different except that my nail look longer.

SOO How on earth do you push your cuticles back using an orange stick:
The orange stick tapered end is to be wrap with very thin layer of cotton wool
Cotton- wrapped orange stick must be dip in water first for every nail
Gently push back the cuticle at 45 degree with a cotton-wrapped orange stick, slowly in circular motion

Cuticle Knife

The U/V-shaped blade cuts cuticles and the rounded blades push back cuticles.
Cuticle knife is used to properly manipulate the cuticle and remove any dead skin or cuticles properly. The main purpose of the cuticle knife is as its name suggests, is to remove any dead cuticle or skin that is still attached to the nail. It is made to actually carve the cuticle out so that the cut is clean and looks natural while also cutting any dead skin at the tip of the cuticle that can’t be removed by nail cutters.

Below are simple steps that I took about half an hour to master using the Cuticle knife:
Wetting cuticle sides before starting is very important to avoid any injury.
Placed the U/V shaped blade cuts cuticle on the cuticle side & gently move in circular inward.
Repeat the motion on both sides of the cuticle

Cuticle Nipper
Cuticle nippers are to trim and tidy cuticles and remove any dead skin from the top of the nail plate. Cuticle nippers aren’t exactly the most common tools when it comes to manicures. It isn’t vitally necessary however would make manipulating and shaping cuticles much easier instead of relying on nail cutters and cuticle knives to do the job. Cuticle nippers are essentially small cutters that look very similar to tweezers but with a cutting element on the end. The main purpose of these instruments is to fill in the gap between nail cutters and cuticle knives where thicker cuticles or dead skin can’t be easily cut by the knife or the nail cutters.

Keep a look out on my other bizarre but fascinating equipments encounter!!!

Friday, November 27, 2009

Pamper urself w a MANICURE

Happy Holiday Everyone : )) "Festival of Sacrifice" is celebrated by Muslims worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son as an act of obedience to God. A day one ponder of the sacrifices made to be a better Muslim, children, sibling, spouse and a friend.

With that I am sharing some pictures taken of mosques around the world:


Have you ever wonder what they actually do when you pamper yourself with a manicure?
1) Removal of any nail polish (From the small finger to the thumb)
Nail polish is set by evaporation therefore to remove one, we need to soak cotton wool with nail polish remover and placed it about 10 second on the nail before wiping it off'

2) Place a piece of tissue paper below the hand

3) Filing
Brown (Manicure)
White (Pedicure)
3a) Discuss client's requirement of filing shape.
3b) Hold the filer correctly (4 fingers in front & the thumb behind, as shown below)

3c) The filer should be 45 degree to the nail & filed in one direction with long stokes/ sounds.

3d) Filing is done toward the end of the nail via the two side first before moving to the center section of the nail.
3e) For a good filing, one must be able to demonstrate correct beveling technique, filling technique and able to hold client's finger correctly .

4) Massage & Soak
4a) Cotton bub is soak with sweet almond oil & place on the cuticle from small finger to thumb.
4b) Massage in circular motion using the thumb.

5) Dab dry with towel
6) Apply cuticle cream & massage

7) Orange Stick wrap with cotton wool.
7a) Dip with water
7b) Push in circular motion at 45 degree on the nail

8) Use of Cuticle knife
9) Use of Cuticle Nipper
10) Massage
11) Dab the hand with tissue

12) Vanishing
12a) Base Coat
12b) 1st Coat
12c) 2nd Coat
12d) Top Coat

Correct handling of product, appearance, client care, hygiene and proper sterilization are important for any
Good Manicure!!!

Saturday, November 21, 2009

HaLloWeEn CaMe lAtE

Pedicure and Medicure, Me? What a total mismatch!!!

The whole 3 hours was all about varnish and  finishing result:
a) Squeak the nails
b) Application of base coat

c) Application of 2 coats of colored varnish

Simple steps of colour varnish application are :
c1) Ensure the colored varnish form a ball from the bottle
c2) Place the ball 2 or 3mm from the cuticle on the middle of the nail .
c3) Spread the brush
c4) Push the brush up and away
c5) Repeat the same steps for the 2 sides of the nail

d) Application of top coat
e) Only 3 stokes per nail
f) The gap between cuticle & varnish must be 2 to 3 mm away
g) Vanish must be applied smoothly and evenly
h) No evidence of flooding
i) The finger must be correctly supported
j) The product must be correctly handled
k) The finished result must be commercially acceptable

which I failed terribly that when my class mate look at my nails they said it's like Halloween.
This is going to be a long long road for me......... ACHA-ACHA!!!

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Recommendation PLS!!!!

I finally found the book "Six Thinking Hats" by Edward de Bono. Recommended by Donald Trump in his interview with Forbes, "Secret of a self made 2009" Edward de Bono's Six Thinking Hats is the latest book that he read. He quoted that the book thoroughly covers the process of thinking, and it's a way to avoid blind spots if you are thinking alone. He coined the expression "lateral thinking," and this book provides a comprehensive approach to using your brain in an efficient and effective way. Wow with that I can't wait to get started.

The last facial theory is all about revision and more revision.
In summary:
Day home product recommendation is all about practicality and protection
Night home product should be nourishing to the skin.

In the day all you need is
1) Hydrating or Anti sensitive cleanser
2)  Hydrating or Anti sensitive toner
3) Hydrating or Anti sensitive Day Cream with SPF 15
Hydrating product can be used for all type of skin but for an individual with sensitive area on the skin an anti sensitive product are much better choices.

At Night,
Different product can be use on the face to target on dissimilar problems especially for combination skin:

1) Hydrating or Anti sensitive cleanser
2) Hydrating or Anti sensitive toner
3) Hydrating anti dark eye / eye bag gel (below 40) or cream (above 40)

# Purifying night cream/ serum for oily area of the skin
# Hydrating cream/ serum for dehydrated area of the skin
# Anti sensitive cream/ serum for sensitive area of the skin (below 40)
# Intensive moisturizing cream/ serum for sensitive area of the skin  (above 40)

5) Mask is to be used only once a week.
# Purifying mask for oily area of the skin
# Hydrating mask for dehydrated area of the skin
# Anti sensitive mask for sensitive area of the skin (below 40)
# Intensive moisturizing mask for sensitive area of the skin (above 40)

6)Scrub is to be used only once a week.
Hydrating or Anti sensitive Scrub

WE ARE DONE yaaaaa!!!!

Moving on Pedicure & Manicure. It will be an interesting outcome coming from a person who has never get her nail done : ))

Saturday, November 14, 2009

If I am 28

It's the weekend finally. Today is all about product recommendation
Imagine a 28 year old girl with combination skin (oily t- zone & sensitive cheek)
sooooooo What product should she be using at home?
1) Cleanser/ Toner & Day moisturize with SPF: An anti sensitive product of course!!!!!(due to the water base component) A purifying product is a big no- no for such skin type as it will aggravate the sensitive condition.
2) Night product or better known as treatment product are:
a) Purifying night cream for the T-zone & Anti sensitive night cream for the cheek
b) As she is just 28, an anti dark eye circle & hydrating gel/ cream/ serum should be used. For more mature ladies, eye cream (Rich) is more suitable.
c) A hydrating night cream or gel should be used for the neck area. An intensive moisturizing night cream should be used on mature skin instead.
d) A purifying mask is to be used on the T- zone & anti dark circle eye mask
e) A motorizing with vitamin E anti- sensitive scrub is appropriate than a peel (stronger). It can also be used once a week.

Have you ever wonder what ingredients are mix in your clay mask at a spa parlor?
1) Oily Skin: Kaolin with Orange flower water (Can be used for sensitive skin) / Witchhazel (More stronger due to the alcohol content)
2)Sensitive Skin: Calamine mask with rose water
3) Dry, Dehydrating & normal skin: magnesium carbonate with rose water

Rose water is an active lotion for all skin type except oily skin & orange flower water is for oily skin only.

For a sleeping queen like me, this blog is really the only motivation for me to stay awake now. so hopefully you are enjoying this as much as i zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz.......

Thursday, November 12, 2009

Time to grieve

I am feeling sad, disappointed, let down, fuming, angry and any other words that can describe the closing of Wellness Village Spa. Had signed a facial and massage package for $1800 & just use up 4 times out of 24 sessions. For a careful buyer that does not spend much on cosmetic products and always on a look out for good bargain, this is so far the worst purchase I had ever made. SUCK MAN !!! for what its worth God is all mighty & I am leaving in his good hand to sentence a punishment just for the Indonesian lady boss ~ LIA MEYRINA... In the meanwhile, I will be following the tread of this case to cut my losses. Wish me luck ya

This bad investment is all over my face at class last night. Thanks to all my class mates, friends & ever supportive hubby who are all there for me, so now here I am standing up & brushing away all the dirt to share with you some thing interesting I learn on “Home Care Product Recommendation”

Basic Home Care Product Recommendation is categories into four type:
1) Hydrating: Water base product or all type of skin types
2) Purifying: Water base product, sometime with a little amount of alcohol for oily or acne skin
3) Anti sensitive: Water base product for sensitive skin
4) Intensive Moisturising: Oil base product for dry skin only
Advance Home Care Product includes:
1) Pigmentation/ Whitening
2) Anti ageing or lifting
As much as you want to remove all your pigmentation & wrinkle first, a good beautician will solve your basic skin problem before working on your advance problems.
A good home care product for all individual included:
1) A good cleanser for your skin type,
2) Toner
3) Day Cream with moisturizing ingredients & SPF. Try not to put too much product on your skin in the day as it cause oiliness
4) Treatment products for the night. The more the merrier

Treatment products for the night are:
A) Vitamin A
B) Amplues/ Serum
C) Mask
Question: At home why do we put on a mask before moisturizer & at any spa the sequence is opposite?
Look out for the answer in my next upload till than do pound on it

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

Mask, Mask & more Mask

All done with the clay mask here come the rest….
Peel off mask: made from gel, latex or paraffin wax. This mask insulates the skin causing an increase of the temperature

a) Gel peel off mask: Is it make out of biological ingredients (starches, gums or gelatin) or synthetic non- biological ingredients. The mask can be use for all types of skin but not advisable for excessive facial hair individual as the mask peel off upon drying. To avoid the discomfort on removal a lubricant should be place under the mask.
b) Latex peel off mask: An emulsion of latex and water. As the water evaporates, it will leave a rubber film over the face. More suitable for mature & dry skin due to the tightening effect.
c) Paraffin Wax peel off mask: Blend of petroleum jelly or acetyl alcohol which improves its spreading properties. The wax is heated up to 37c before applying to the skin. Due to its stimulating action, it is unsuitable for greasy skin or sensitive skin but recommended for Dry Skin instead

Thermal mask contain various minerals. The mask warms upon contact with the skin will cause pores to enlarge thereby cleaning the skin. Due to its stimulating & cleaning action, this mask is suitable for normal skin or congested greasy skin with open pores

NON SETTING MASK. The ones that stay soft on application include:

a) Warm oil: Is made out of plant oil (Olive oil or almond oil). Is warmed before application and aid in softening the skin and helps to restore the skin natural moisture balance.
b) Natural masks- fruit, plant and herbal: Mildly astringent and stimulating effect rich with natural vitamin & minerals
c) Cream: the mask have a softening and moisturizing effect to the skin as each mask contain various biological extracts or chemical substances to treat different skin types

Do you know, Honey, Egg white, Avocados & Banana can be use as natural masks?
1) Honey: For toning, tightening, antiseptic and hydrating effect
2) Egg White: For tightening & clearing impurities from the skin
3) Avocados: For nourishing effect
4) Bananas: For softening effect

For all face mask application, we must observe several contra- indications which allergies, claustrophobia & sensitive skins

A good beautician is able to provide product recommendations to any skin types & this is something I am looking forward to learn in my next lesson….

Sunday, November 8, 2009

More than a Simple Facial

Its the weekend & here I am picking up from where we left

Combination skin.......
For Combination Skin, we have to look in 6 different areas of the face
1) Forehead
2) Nose
3) Chin
4) Cheek
5) Eyes (Dark Circle, Line)
6) Neck (Fine Line & shaggy)
Same analyses of pores, skin texture, skin tone & muscle tone apply but to be separately look at for each area.

Quick recap of any standard facial process:
1) Cleanser
2) Toner
3) Scrub/ Enzyme Peel
4) Extraction
5) Ampules/ Serum
6)Massage cream/ Oil
7) Mask

& so 2nd in the list is our humble toner (To be use after every cleanser):
a) Provide a cooling effect to the skin due to the evaporation effect
b) Create a tightening effect on the skin because the chemical within the toner called an astringent cause the pores to close reducing the flow of sebum and sweat onto the skin surface
c) Help to restore the acidic ph balance

Likewise there is also more than 1 type of toner
a) Purifying toner: For oily skin
b) Hydrating Toner: For all type of skin
c) Anti sensitive Toner: For sensitive skin
d) Intensive moistoring Toner: Just for Dry skin & a no- no for our young delicate dehydrated skin as it will be too rich.

The main different of toners are differentiated by the amount of alcohol they contain:
a) Bracers & fresheners: The mildest which contain no alcohol & mainly purified water with floral extract (rose water) for dry, delicate, sensitive & mature skin
b) Tonics: Slightly stronger which contain very small amount of astringent (witchhazel) for normal skin
c) Astringents: The strongest with high proportion of alchol and may contain antiseptic ingredients such as hexachlorophener for blemished skin and promoting skin healing. This is recommended for oily skin with no sensitivity & mild acne young skin.

Enzyme peel or exfoliation is necessary during all facial to remove dead skin and soften one skin. A scrub effect is not as strong as a peel and just for your info our skin take about 28 days to renew themselves.

The 3 types of peel are:
1) AHA, BHA, TCA: These are fruit acid peel, the most strongest & most effective peels that will cause redness & skin to peel off after used. 20% is the most recommended
2) Enzyme peel: The most mild & popular peel
3) Lactic peel: A mild milk base peel.

EXTRACTION the most dreadful period of any facial visit : ((
Do you know that after every extraction done, a Cotton wool soak with antiseptics, sterilizing lotion soften or toner need to be use?

With all the cleaning & scrubbing..........OVER

Here come the moisturising parts:
The use of ampules or serum via manual or machine which used 95% ultrasound to penetrate into deeper skin layer. The ampules are categorize the same way as toners purifying, hydrating and etc.

A face & shoulder massage is also given to
a) loosen and shed dead epidermal cells for the skin to appear fresh & young
b) Improve supply of oxygenated blood essential for cell growth (firming & facial contour)
c) Increasing blood circulation to induces relaxation & treat tense muscles
d) Improving blood colour
e) Purify the skin by lymphatic circulation and venous blood circulation
f) Increase temperature of skin to relax the pores and follicles that in turn aid absorption
g) Sensory nerves can be soothed or stimulated
h) Increase the production of skin natural oil and moisture balance
That explain why we limit massaging oily skin to 5 min only (others type of skin: 10 to 15 min)

The 6 types of massage are:
1) Elleurage better known as Swedish message
2) Petrissage
3) Percussion/ Tapotement
4) Vibrations
5) Fiction
6) Knitting

Last but not least: Masking
There is 2 types of mask
1) Setting
2) Non setting

Setting mask come in:
a) Clay packs
b) Peel off mask
c) Thermal mask

Clay mask absorbs sebum and debris leaving it cleansed. It can also stimulate or soothe skin according to the ingredients:
a) Calamine: Light pink powder which soothes surface blood capilaries for sensitive and delicate skin
b) Magnesium Carbonate: Light white powder which create a temporary astringent and toning effect for open pores on dry and normal skin
c) Kaolin: A commonly used cream colour powder which has very stimulating effect helping the skin to remove impurities and waste products used for congested and greasy skin.
d) Fuller's Earth: Green, Heavy clay powder with very stimulating effect such that the skin will show slight reddening & produces a whitening, brightening effect. Only used on greasy skin with sluggish circulation but a no- no for sensitive skin.
f) Flowers of sulphur: Yellow clay powder which has dying effect to be apply only on blemishes.

To activate these masks it is necessary to add liquid (active lotion)
a) Rose water and orange flower water: For a very mild stimulating and toning effect
b) Witchhazel: Soothing effect on blemished skin and use on greasy skin.
c) Distilled water: Used for highly sensitive skins
d) Almond oil: Mildly stimulating & because it is an oil, it does not allow the mask to dry therefore recommended for highly sensitive or dehydrated skin.
e) Glycerol: A humectant which prevents the mask drying suitable for dry & mature skin
f) Vitamin E: Oil base (Avocado is high in vitamin E)

I am not sure about you but this is all I can handle for the weekend. So logging out now.......

Thursday, November 5, 2009

Wat Ur Skin type???

Finally with the help of my charming hubby & lovely sis, I am starting my blogging journey. Hopefully with all the posting I intended to writte after every lessons help me in one way or another with my grades & also served as a sharing session of what I called a "Beauty Antidote"

My 1st class started off with the standard facial treatment process. It covers the reception area which are used to provide consultation, checking contraindication condition (condition that the client is not allow for any treatments) which i do not see much of that in the market......., treatment proposed and cost (for every budget, a very important point to remember)

Next stop is the preparation area which intended to make the client feel at ease. Changing area, treatment robe, towel & a locker is an essential.

The basic facial products preparation requires:
a) Cleanser
b) Toner
c) Enzyme peel/ Scrub
d) Extraction
e) Ampules/ Serum
f) Massage cream/ Oil
g) Mask

Do you know that there is more than one type of cleanser? Each cleanser is used for a different purpose
a) Cleansing cream,
It is one of the most powerful oil based cleanser used to remove make up and more suitable for dry skin
b) Cleansing milk,
More water based with very little oil content cleanser suitable for all skins. It can also be use as an alternative from cleansing cream to remove make up
c) Cleaning Gel,
Suitable for oily skin as the oil content is near zero
d) Cleaning Oil,
Do not be fool by the name, the oil is actually water based which liquefied when come in contact with water . It's usually used on sensitive skin & can be very expensive
e) Cleaning Mousse,
It's a no- no for oily skin but can be use for other skin types

Our skin type are usually categorised as
a) Normal
b) Combination
c) Sensitive
d) Oily
e) Dehydrated
f) Dry

& beautician analyse different type of skin by 4 areas:
1) Pores,
Enlarge or Refine, Congested with pimple, comedone ( Just a Fancy name for blackhead) & milia (guess what is mean???? WHITE HEAD)
2) Skin texture
Testing is done by using your 2nd & 3rd finger, smooth or rough
3) Skin Tone/ Colour
Even/ Uneven, scarring due to pimple, pigmentation & redness
4) Muscle tone
Elasticity check. Testing is done below the chin area (Good, average, shaggy/ ageing or double chin)

Normal skin will have refine pore, smooth skin texture without fine line or wrinkle, even skin tone with no pigmentation & firm muscle tone. (Every ladies dream skin)

Oily Skin, a condition 99% of Singaporean is diagnosed with due to our humid weather. Enlarged pore with congestion of pimple, comedone, milia, uneven skin tone with average muscle tone.

Dehydrated skin is usually wrongly associated with dry skin.This perception is totally wrong as dehydrated skin is a condition only for the younger age group (below 30). The condition can be temporary due to harsh product usage, sun tanning, smoking & drinking. A water based hydrating product should be introduce to restore the skin. The skin usually have refine pores, rough texture, uneven skin tone & average muscle tone

Dry skin is due to human aging process (above 40). A high oil contain product is recommend to improve the rough & flaky skin texture, uneven skin tone & poor muscle tone. The pore condition will depend on past indiviual skin condition. Enlarged pores are commonly link with indiviual previous oily skin condition.

Sensitive skin can mirror either enlarge or refine pores condition, reddish skin tone with rough skin texture and muscle tone will depend on the age of the indiviual.

As for Combination skin......This will be cover in my next upload so look out for them
logging off for my beauty SLEEP now : ))