Sunday, December 6, 2009

Sub tt form a MIXTURE

An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture...........

Maybe I am thinking too much but have you ever wonder what is the ingredients that made up the products used in manicure and pedicure

1) Nail Polish remover
Used to remove nail poilsh and grease from the nail plate prior to applying polish.

A nail polish remover is formulated from a combination of solvents derived from naturally occurring materials, which combination consists essentially of a (i) a major proportion by weight (“by wt”) of esters of fatty acids having from 16 to 18 carbon atoms wherein the content of linoleic acid ester in the source vegetable oil is less than 60%, and (ii) a minor proportion by weight of a lower (C1–C5) alkyl lactate. The nail polish remover is highly effective yet has good skin conditioning properties, is non-toxic and non-flammable. A visible residue several micrometers thick provides a desirable gloss on the cleaned nails unless it is washed off.

- Acetone or ethyl acetate

Acetone is the organic compound with the formula OC(CH3)2. This colorless, mobile, flammable liquid is the simplest example of the ketones. Owing to the fact that acetone is miscible with water it serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes

- Perfume
- Colour
- Oil

2) Hand Lotion/ Oil
Used to soften the skin and cuticles and provide slip during hand massage

- Vegetable oil (Almond Oil)
Sweet Almond oil is one of the most popular vegetable oils, which is also used in the form of carrier oil. Texture wise, the oil extracted from the seeds of Almond, is a bit oily. The botanical name of Almond is Prunus amygdalus var. dulcus. Sweet Almond has a very light, sweet and nutty aroma. It is absolutely clear in color with a tinge of yellow.

Benefits of Almond Oil

a) Almond oil is believed to improve complexion and add glow to even dull skin.
b) It improves the movement of food through the colon.
c) Regular intake of almond oil is said to reduce cholesterol.
d)It acts as a nutritive for brain and nervous system.
e) It is considered to encourage high intellectual level and longevity.
f) For massage and internal consumption, almond oil is regarded as a nutritive aphrodisiac.
g) It improves the immune system of the body.
h) To restore lost moisture in skin, almond oil is the best medication.
i) Due to its lubrication property, it helps in fighting itching and inflammation.
It is suitable for all skin types and acts as a natural moisturizer.
Application of sweet almond oil provides an instant relief from problems such as muscle pain.

- Perfume

- Emulsifying agents (besswax or gum tragacanth)

Lotion are made by combining oil-based and water-based ingredients, and are therefore the only skin care applications that have at the same time moisturising and nourishing effects. The water (or water-based ingredients) supply the "moisturising" properties, and the oils or fats the "nourishing" properties.

Technically, lotions are emulsions. In an emulsion, tiny droplets of one of the liquids are suspended in a second liquid, which would not "naturally" mix with the first. This is the case with water and oils: it is always possible to mix together water and oil, but unless something is done to create an emulsion, the oils (which are lighter than water) will always sit on top of the water and not "blend" with it.
This physical incompatibility of water and oils can be overcome by agitating the water and oil mix. Agitation disperses the molecules, and generates an emulsion. However, emulsions made by simply agitating water and oil will separate within a short time, with the water part falling to the bottom, and the oils floating on top.
The only way to obtain a stable emulsion is to add an emulsifying agent to the mix.

- Emollients (glycerine or Lanoloin)
Emollients are substances that soften and soothe the skin. They are used to correct dryness and scaling of the skin.
- Preservatives

3) Nail bleach
Used to whiten stained nails and the surrounding skin

- Citric acid or hydrogen peroxide
a bleaching composition is applied to the skin or nails to be bleached or lightened

- Glycerine
Glycerin acts to moisturize the nails and cuticles
- Water

4) Nail Polish
Used to colour nail plates and provide some protection

A nail polish is made from 92% to 96% ingredients including a film former, colorant, plasticizer and solvent; and 4% to 8% polyester resin made from 2,2,4-trimethyl-1, 3-pentanediol, isophthalic acid-85, and trimellitic anhydride, having an acid value of 75-85 and a viscosity of 125-175 centipoise. In another example, the polyester is made from 50.932% 2,2,4 trimethyl-1, 3-pentanediol, 27.579% isophthalic acid-85, 0.186% dibutyl tin oxide catalyst and 21.303 trimellitic anhydride, having an acid value of 80 and a viscosity of 150 centipoise.

- Formaldehyde
Is a harden agents for nail but Formaldehyde is toxin as it is a carcinogen and a common indoor air pollutant because its resins are used in many construction materials. Formaldehyde has caused cancer in the nose and throats of lab animals. Inhaling the fumes can result in watery eyes, headache, burning in the throat, and labored breathing.
- Solvent
Drying agents
- Colour pigmentation

- Resin
Is the glue that joint the pigmentation together

- Toluene
Is the drying agent a clear, colourless liquid used to make products such as dyes, paints, paint thinners and explosives. Solvents such as toluene, which give nail polish its fluid quality and improve drying time, absorb easily through the skin or through inhalation. Toluene is a hydrocarbon (C7H8) that’s found in crude oil and is produced during the manufacture of gasoline and other fuels. It can affect the nervous system, causing depression, headaches, nausea and feelings of intoxication. Low to moderate levels of exposure can cause symptoms from tiredness to loss of hearing and colour vision.

- Plasticisers
An ingredient in nail polish to make it chip resistant

- Pearlised particles
Micas (tiny reflective minerals), also used in lipsticks, are a common additive, as is "pearl" or "fish scale" essence. "Pearl" or "guanine" is literally made from small fish scales and skin, suitably cleaned, and mixed with solvents such as castor oil and butyl acetate. The guanine can also be mixed with gold, silver, and bronze tones.

5) Cuticle cream
Used to soften the cuticles

- Emollients (glycerine or Lanoloin)
- Perfume
- Colour

6) Cuticle Oil
Used to condition the nail and surrounding skin

-Oil such as lanolin

7) Nail Strengthener
Used to harden soft nails but not good in long run

- Formaldehyde

8) Cuticle remover
Used to soften dead cuticles

- Potassium hydroxide
- Glycerine

Cuticle remover contain two of the most common ingredients Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide. They are both very alkaline (have a high ph) and caustic. These ingredients work by softening and breaking down the dead skin around the nail so that it can be removed gently with a nail knife or orange-wood stick.

Both ingredients can cause irritations and dryness if left on the skin for too long, so it’s important to wash your hands well and thoroughly after using products that contain them. In addition, they are poisonous when ingested so keep them away from small children.

A milder option
Products with Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide are pretty harsh and aggressive, so if you prefer a more gentle alternative, you can get one of the many cuticle removers on the market that use Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA) instead. This is a group of substances derived from plants or milk that act as exfoliants. They break down the glue-like substance that hold skin cells together so that they can be easily pushed away. Although milder than Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide, AHAs can cause irritations too especially in people with sensitive skin.

9) Buffing paste
Used to shine the nail plate (used with a buffer)

- Perfume
- Colour
- Abrasive particles (pumice, talc or silica)

10) Nail Polish drier
Used to increase the speed at which the nail polish hardens (Note that it only set the top layer & might give a pre mature chipping. Also come in Quick Dry Spray

- Mineral Oil
- Oleric acid or Sillicone

Do you know that.........
Dipping your nails in a bowl of ice water will make your nail polish dry more quickly. You'll only need to keep your nails in the water for about 30 seconds. The cold temperature will quickly set the polish.

11) Nail Polish Solvent
Used to thin nail polish that has thickens

- Ethyl acetate
Ethyl acetate (systematically, ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COOCH2CH3. This colorless liquid has a characteristic sweet smell (similar to pear drops) like certain glues or nail polish removers, in which it is used. Ethyl acetate is the ester of ethanol and acetic acid; it is manufactured on a large scale for use as a solvent.

- Toluene

12) Exfoliating scrub
Used to remove dead skin cells, cleanse the skin, condition soften and refreah kin, improving blood circulation in the area

- Abrasive ingredients such pumice, sea salt, detergent, water and water soluble ingredients added moisturisers, refreshing agents eg peppermint oil.

Blogging put away the fact that my boss is back tommorow so Eveyone out there



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