Monday, December 7, 2009

When nails got SICK : ((

I thought of doing some researches before the class today but I was overwhelmed with all the different types of nail disease and not forgetting the gross pictures. Here are some out of many diseases that I will try to keep it short and sweet


Bruised Nails
is a condition in which a clot of blood forms under the nail plate. The clot is caused by injury to the nail bed. It can vary in color from maroon to black. In some cases, a bruised nail will fall off during the healing process. Severe bruising should not be worked on.

Onychatrophia
Also known as atrophy describes the wasting away of the nail. The nail loses its shine, shrinks, and falls. This can be caused by injury to the nail matrix or by internal disease. This condition with be handle with care

Onychauxis
Show the opposite symptoms of onychatrophia.
Nails with this disorder are abnormally thick. The condition is usually caused by internal imbalance, local infection, or heredity. The nail is to be filed until smooth and buff

Onychocryptosis
Ingrown nails is a familiar condition of the fingers and toes in which the nail grows into the sides of the tissue around the nail. If the nail is not too deeply imbedded in the flesh, you can trim the corner of the nail in a curved shape to relieve the pressure on nail groove. If it is deep they should see a doctor.

Onychophagy
Is the medical term for nails that have been bitten enough to become deformed. This condition can be greatly improved by regular manicures or artificial nails. It is not realistic to tell a nail biter to come back for artificial nails after they have grown a free edge. Artificial nails can help this person break the biting habit. There are also nail biting topically applied remedies available.

Pterygium
describes as the common condition of the forward growth of the cuticle on the nail. The cuticle sticks to the nail plate and, if not treated, will grow over the nail to the free edge.

Leukonychia
Is a condition in which white spots appear on the nails. It is caused by air bubbles, a bruise or other injury to the nail. Leukonchia can not be corrected but it will grow out.

Onychorrhexis
Refers to split or brittle nails that also have a series of lengthwise ridges. It can be caused by chemicals, injury to the fingers, excessive use of cuticle solvents, nail polish removers and careless rough filing. This condition may be corrected by softening the nails with a reconditioning treatment and discontinuing the abuse.

Hangnails
Is a common condition in which the cuticle around the nail splits. Hangnails are caused by dry cuticles and skin. They are also aggravated by improper trimming. This disorder can be solved by keeping the cuticles moisturized with oil and lotion. These can become infected and very painful

Furrows
Also known as corrugations, are long ridges that run either lengthwise or across the nail. Some lengthwise ridges are normal in adults. These ridges increase with age and can also be caused by psoriasis, poor circulation and frostbite. Ridges that run across the nail are caused by high fevers, pregnancy & measles

Eggshell Nails
Are thin, white, and curved over the free edge. The condition is caused by improper diet, internal disease, medication, or nervous disorders. Be careful when manicuring these nails because they are fragile and break easily.

Discolored Nails
This is a condition in which the nails turn a variety including yellow, blue, blue-gray, green, red and purple. Discoloration can be caused by poor circulation, a heart condition, or topical or oral medications. It may also indicate the presence of a systemic disorder. Artificial wraps, tips or an application of colored polish can hide this condition.

Longitudinal ridging
This may often be mistaken for a fungal infection. Causes include alopecia areata, lichen planus, rheumatoid arthritis ans peripheral vascular disease

Minor Nails separations
Usually damage to the nail, however could be related to illness. When the nail separates from the underlying tissue (nail bed) it appears as if the white part of the nail is extending backwards and becoming larger. Most commonly this is caused by psoriasis or repeated exposure to detergents. Catching the nail accidentally on something is also a common explanation, causing the nail to be levered off the nail bed. Typing on a keyboard may have the same effect over time.

Calluses
A callus (or callosity) is an especially toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard in response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation. Rubbing that is too frequent or forceful will cause blisters rather than allow calluses to form. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on feet because of frequent walking. Calluses are generally not harmful, but may sometimes lead to other problems, such as skin ulceration or infection.

Corns
A corn (or clavus, plural clavi) is a specially-shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin or glabrous (hairless and smooth) skin surfaces, especially on the dorsal surface of toes or fingers. They can sometimes occur on the thicker palmar or plantar skin surfaces. Corns form when the pressure point against the skin traces an elliptical or semi-elliptical path during the rubbing motion, the center of which is at the point of pressure, gradually widening. If there is constant stimulation of the tissue producing the corns, even after the corn is surgically removed, the skin may continue to grow as a corn.The location of soft corns tends to differ from that of hard corns. Hard corns occur on dry, flat surfaces of skin. Soft corns (frequently found between adjacent toes) stay moist, keeping the surrounding skin soft. The corn's center is not soft, however, but indurated.

Corns and calluses are easier to prevent than to treat. When it is not desirable to form a callus, minimizing rubbing and pressure will prevent callus formation. Footwear should be properly fitted and broken in, gloves may be worn, and protective pads, rings or skin dressings may be used. People with poor circulation or sensation should check their skin often for signs of rubbing and irritation so they can minimize any damage. Calluses and corns may go away by themselves eventually, once the irritation is consistently avoided. They may also be dissolved with keratolytic agents containing salicylic acid, sanded down with a pumice stone, or pared down by a medical professional such as a podiatrist

Bunions
A bunion is a structural deformity of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe, and may be painful. A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).The big toe may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender. The symptoms of bunions include irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. Bunions are caused by a biomechanical abnormality, where certain tendons, ligaments, and supportive structures of the first metatarsal are no longer functioning correctly. This biomechanical abnormality may be caused by a variety of conditions intrinsic to the structure of the foot--such as flat feet, excessive ligamentous flexibility, abnormal bone structure, and certain neurological conditions. These factors are often considered genetic. Although some experts are convinced that poor fitting footwear is the main cause of bunion formation, other sources concede only that footwear exacerbates the problem caused by the original genetic deformity.

Bunions are commonly associated with a deviated position of the big toe toward the second toe, and the deviation in the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the foot. The small sesamoid bones found beneath the first metatarsal (which help the flexor tendon bend the big toe downwards) may also become deviated over time as the first metatarsal bone drifts away from its normal position. Arthritis of the great toe joint, diminished and/or altered range of motion, and discomfort with pressure applied to the bump or with motion of the joint, may all accompany bunion development.

Treatment
Bunions may be treated conservatively with changes in shoe gear, different orthotics (accommodative padding and shielding), rest, ice, and medications. These sorts of treatments address symptoms more than they correct the actual deformity. Surgery, by a podiatrist or an orthopeadist, may be necessary if discomfort is severe enough or when correction of the deformity is desired.

Chilblains
Chilblains are also referred to as pernio or perniosis. They are small, itchy, painful swellings that generally appear on the skin after several hours of exposure to cold temperatures. Thus, they tend to develop during the winter months. They are more likely to occur on the extremities such as the toes, fingers, nose and earlobes, which are the first areas to become cold. Other areas of the skin such as the heels, thighs and lower legs can also be affected in extreme temperatures.

Ingrown toenails
Onychocryptosis (also known as an "Ingrown nail," or "Unguis incarnates”) is a common form of nail disease. It is an often painful condition in which the nail grows so that it cuts into one or both sides of the nail bed. While ingrown nails can occur in both the nails of the hand and feet, they occur most commonly with the toenails.

With that I will spare the gross photos in my next upload

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